Selasa, 15 April 2014


Diacetone alcohol is a chemical compound with the formula CH3C(O)CH2C(OH)(CH3)2. This liquid is a common synthetic intermediate used for the preparation of other compounds.

It occurs naturally in Sleepy grass (Achnatherum robustum).


First identified by Heintz, its preparation entails the Ba(OH)2-catalyzed condensation of two molecules of acetone.

It undergoes dehydration to give the α,β-unsaturated ketone, mesityl oxide:[3] Hydrogenation of mesityl oxide gives the industrial solvent, methyl isobutyl ketone ("MIBK").


It is used in cellulose ester lacquers, particularly of the brushing type, where it produces brilliant gloss and hard film and where its lack of odor is desirable. It is used in lacquer thinners, dopes, wood stains, wood preservatives and printing pastes; in coating compositions for paper and textiles; permanent markers;[4] in making artificial silk and leather; in imitation gold leaf; in celluloid cements; as a preservative for animal tissue; in metal cleaning compounds; in the manufacture of photographic film; and in hydraulic brake fluids, where it is usually mixed with an equal volume of castor oil. Read More..

Kamis, 13 Februari 2014

Lubrication Basics

One of the most important things an operator can do for his machinery is to make sure it is properly lubricated. So what is a lubricant and how does it affect operations when used properly? This paper will answer these questions and more by covering the fundamentals of lubrication. We will discuss how a lubricant works to remove friction, the physical and chemical properties of the lubricant, and the many functions of a lubricant.

Many people believe that a lubricant is simply used to make things “slippery.” While it is the primary function, there are more advantages to using the right lubricant. In addition to friction reduction, it also reduces the amount of wear that occurs during operation, reduces operating temperatures, minimizes corrosion of metal surfaces, and assists in keeping contaminants out of the system. Lubricants have many properties that can be mixed and matched to meet your operating needs. For example, there are different chemicals that can be added to allow a machine to efficiently run at extreme temperatures. We can also make a lubricant more effective in protecting machine surfaces under extreme pressures. By looking at the demands of the machine, you can properly identify the type of lubricant best suited for its proper function.

What Is Lubrication?

To understand what lubrication is, you first need to understand why we use it. Friction is the force that resists relative motion between two bodies in contact. If friction didn’t exist, nothing would ever stop moving. We need friction to function, but there are instances where you want to be able to reduce the amount of friction present. When you rub your hands together, you create heat because of the friction between the sliding surfaces of your hands. Now imagine rubbing your hands together 3600 times a minute – your hands would be on fire! Similar heat is generated by friction in your machinery. If the lubricant in your equipment has not been appropriately selected with standard operating temperatures, load, speed, etc., in mind, catastrophic failure may result.

You could wipe your bearings or if you stop your motor, for example, and the machine is too hot, you could seize the bearings. Either way, both are costly when you consider time lost, manpower used, and new equipment purchased. In order to avoid failures of this nature, we lubricate our machinery to minimize the resistance to movement, and as a result, minimize the amount of heat produced. The heat that is produced by the equipment is transferred to the oil so that it may be removed by a lube oil cooler. There are a lot of considerations that must be applied when selecting the type of lubricant we need to use: viscosity, additives needed, properties, etc.

Reducing friction and reducing heat are only a couple of the reasons we use lubricants. If you look under a microscope at two surfaces moving across each other, you would see something that looks like two mountain ranges rubbing against one another. As this happens, pieces of the weaker material break off and create smaller abrasive particles, resulting in more broken off pieces, which go on to create more abrasion. It’s a vicious cycle, and the way we prevent this from occurring is by creating a lubrication film. Two of the preferred and most common types of fluid related lubricant films are hydrodynamic and elastohydrodynamic. Hydrodynamic films are present between sliding contacts. The most common example would be a journal bearing.

When a shaft is still, it sits on the bottom of the bearing, but when it starts to move, it tries to “climb” up the side of the bearing. Microscopic layer upon layer of the lubricant create friction with each other and form an oil wedge between the shaft and the bearing, protecting both surfaces. Elastohydrodynamic films are present in rolling contacts, such as ball bearings or roller bearings. In this situation, the softer material makes up the rolling element which actually deforms for a split second to enlarge the contact area between mating surfaces. Here, the oil film thickness is one micron or less, which brings me to another reason for lubrication. We need to minimize foreign particles that may cause damage to this area.

Now in situations where the film layer is only one micron thick, you could imagine that any contaminants that are present can create major damage, so we try to eliminate as many as possible. While we can control the amount of contamination that enters a system by using seals, filters, and other quality controls, it’s impossible to completely eliminate machinery wear, even with the best lubricant films. So what do we do with the wear particles we can’t avoid? Certain additives in lubrication will be attracted to these contaminants, suspend them in the lubricant, and transfer them to filters or other separators installed in the system where they will be removed.

Finally, most places aren’t completely unaffected by humidity. So what does it mean when water and air come into contact with metal? Corrosion, and as we all know, that’s not good for machine operation. So how does a lubricant help with this problem? There are different additives, similar in operation to the additives used for contamination control, which prevent metal surfaces from coming in contact with water. This prevents the production of rust, therefore preventing damage to the metal machine surfaces.

So a lubricant is a substance that reduces friction, heat, and wear when introduced as a film between solid surfaces. Using the correct lubricant helps maximize the life of your bearings and machinery, therefore saving money, time, and manpower, thus making operations more efficient and more reliable.

What Makes Up the Lubricants We Use?

All lubricants start with a base oil. There are three types: mineral, synthetic, and vegetable. In industrial applications, we mostly deal with mineral and synthetic, so I would like to focus on these. Mineral oil comes from crude oil and the quality depends on the refining process. There is a grading scale for oil and different applications require different oil quality. Mineral oil is mainly made up of four different types of molecules – paraffin, branched paraffin, naphthene, and aromatic. Paraffinic oils have a long, straight chained structure, while branched paraffinic oils are the same with a branch off the side. These are used mainly in engine oils, industrial lubricants, and processing oils. Naphthenic oils have a saturated ring structure and are most common in moderate temperature applications. Aromatic oils have a non-saturated ring structure and are used for manufacturing seal compounds and adhesives. Synthetic oils are man-made fluids that have identical straight chained structures, much like the branched paraffinic oils. One of the benefits of a synthetic is that the molecular size and weight are constant while mineral oils vary greatly; therefore the properties are very predictable.

So why don’t we use synthetic oils all the time if we know exactly what it’s going to do? While there are many advantages to using a synthetic, there are almost as many reasons to not use it. The best quality mineral oil is mostly made up of paraffinic oils, like those in synthetic oil. So, in many applications, mineral oil is just as good as synthetic, and in these applications is most likely the preferred base due to synthetic’s high cost, toxicity, solubility, incompatibility, and hazardous disposal. However, in extreme applications where a high flash point, low pour point, fire resistance, thermal stability, high shear strength, or high viscosity index is needed, a synthetic may be just what’s required.

We briefly discussed a couple of the additives that are used with a base oil in order to improve performance, but I’d like to expand on the most common additives now. The most important property to look at when choosing a lubricant is its viscosity. This is the oil’s resistance to shear and flow. The simplest way to describe viscosity is to relate it to substances that we are familiar with. The higher an oil’s viscosity, the slower it flows. Molasses, for example, has a very high viscosity while baby oil has a very low viscosity. The viscosity required for an application depends on the speed, operating temperature, and type of bearing as well as the type of component, like a gearbox versus a motor. Working hand in hand with viscosity is the viscosity index, which relates change in viscosity due to temperature. The higher the viscosity index, the less viscosity is affected by temperature. This property can be improved with a viscosity index additive. Rust inhibitors protect surfaces against rust by forming a thin water repelling film on the metals surface. Dispersants help protect components against abrasion from wear products by enveloping particles and suspending them in the oil so that they may be easily flushed and removed from the system. Antiwear and extreme pressure (EP) additives react with a component’s surfaces to form a thin protective layer to prevent metal-to-metal contact. This is especially helpful in situations where there is high pressure or a lot of stop and start evolutions. Detergents work to neutralize acids and clean surfaces where deposits may be detrimental. Finally, defoamants weaken the surface tension of bubbles so that they may break easily and minimize foaming.

For any given oil, the ingredients are the base oil and the additives. The only difference for grease is that it also has a thickener. This is most commonly described as “the sponge that holds the lubricant.” Up to thirty percent of grease is made up of the thickener which is either a simple or complex soap. Simple soap is made up of long fibers and has a smooth, buttery texture. Examples of simple soaps are lithium, polyurea, calcium, and silica. Complex soap is made up of short and long fibers and has a more fibrous texture. Some examples are aluminum, sodium, and barium.

There are benefits of using a grease as opposed to oil in certain applications. Grease seals out contaminants, is better suited for insoluble solid additives like molybdenum disulfide and graphite, and has better stop-start performance because it doesn’t drain away like oil, for a lower chance of a dry start. However, the thickness of grease limits bearing speed, reduces cooling of components, makes for difficult sampling and analysis, and makes it difficult to determine the proper amount of grease that needs adding. This is something that must be taken into consideration when deciding if oil or grease would be better suited for the application.

With a basic understanding of lubrication, you can see there are quite a few advantages of using the proper lubrication in your machines. Higher efficiency, longer life, better reliability, and less money spent on maintenance are goals that every company strives to achieve. Learning more about proper lubrication programs and applying everything you learn will make these goals easily within reach.

Source: Noria Corp. Read More..

How to Spot Lubrication Warning Signs

Knowing the condition of your lubricants is essential to keeping manufacturing plants running smoothly. This can be accomplished through a thorough oil analysis program that tracks multiple critical wear-related characteristics of oil in service by comparing the results with previous reports and noting the trends. Such a program helps identify contamination, lubricant degradation, abnormal machine wear and problems with sampling. It also can transform a lubrication program from time-based to condition-based, eliminating unnecessary changes.

Total acid number – This measures the amount of oxidation that the fluid has undergone since startup. It is a useful measure of the performance of a lubricant, and a good predictor for when it should be replaced. As lubricant fluid is used and exposed to the air, its oxidation level increases, decreasing the effectiveness of the lubricant. A total acid number that is significantly higher than its initial value is a key warning sign of lubrication problems. Equally important is a system’s particle count. This provides information about the cleanliness of the system and performance of the filtration system. Dirt and other impurities accumulate in the lubricant, decreasing its effectiveness. A properly functioning filtration system can extend the life of this measure, but if the particle count increases significantly from its initial values, this is an indication that the lubricant should be replaced.

Water – Water is a major enemy of lubricants. Especially in moist environments, where the lubricant is exposed to open water or steam, the water content of a lubricant can significantly impact performance. Different lubricants have varying tolerances for water content. For example, a polyalkylene glycol has higher water limits than a polyalphaolefin product. Each lubricant has its own guidelines on acceptable parts-per-million (ppm) water levels. These can be obtained from your lubricant supplier. Regardless of the lubricant you use, water content that exceeds acceptable levels is a serious warning sign of impending lubricant failure.

Metals – Metals analysis can reveal information about the wear in your system and the performance of certain additives. Metals are found in lubricants both as a result of additives in the fluid and as a result of wear, depending on the type of lubricant and the configuration of your system. The typical oil sample test targets common engine metals such as copper, aluminum, and iron in order to provide a measure of the amount of metal “ingested” by the lubricant. As with water content, different lubricants have varying tolerances for metal content. Again, plant managers should consult with their lubricant supplier to best predict when metal analysis results indicate the need for lubricant change.

Particle analysis – Particle analysis can help detect metal contamination and ensures that the lubricant system has correct filtration, specifications which can significantly increase the amount of time required between lubricant changes.

Viscosity – Perhaps the most simple and common-sense test of lubricant wear is a lubricant’s kinematic viscosity, or thickness. By tracking a fixed amount of oil as it travels through a lubrication system, increases in viscosity can easily be measured. An increase in viscosity is directly related to lubricant wear. As a rule of thumb, lubricants should be changed before their viscosity changes more than 10 percent.

Many of the best lubricant suppliers offer oil analysis programs that track many of the conditions of lubricants, predicting when the ideal time to change lubricants. Check with your lubricant supplier to see if such a program is available to you.

This article was provided by Dow Corning Molykote. For more information, visit Read More..

Jumat, 29 November 2013


Castor Oil is a vegetable oil obtained by pressing the seeds of the castor plant ( Ricinus Communis ). The common name " Castor Oil " probably comes from its uses as a replacement for castoreum, a parfume base made from the dried perineal glands of the beaver.

Castor oil is a colorless to very pale yellow liquid with mild or no odor or taste. Its boiling point is 313 0C ( 595 0F )and its density is 961 kg/m3. It is a triglyceride in which approximately 90 percent of fatty acid chains are ricinoleate. Oleate and llinoleates are the other significant components.

Castor oil and its derivatives are used in the manufacturing of soaps, lubricants, hydraulic and brake fluids, paints, dyes, coating, inks, cold resistant plastic, waxes and polishes, nylon, pharmaceuticals and perfumes.

Source : wikipidia.

Michael Thang
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Biodiesel is perishable and starts to oxidise as soon as it has been produced. It reacts with atmospheric oxygen to produce volatile compounds, corrosive carboxylic acids and polymerized / cross-linked biodiesel gums that can damage diesel engine components. Already certain fuel pump manufacturers have withdrawn warranties for B100 because of such gums and residues which are not due to biodiesel itself, rather the biproducts of biodiesel oxidation.

Baynox prevent the premature oxidation of unsaturated biodiesel esters and hence the formation of these problematic biproducts-keeping biodiesel fresh and extending it's shelf life.

Baynox is especially suitable for biodiesel produced from vegetable oils with a low content of multiple unsaturated fatty acids and an iodin number of <120.
If the activity is not sufficient, it is recommended to use the stronger product Baynox Plus instead.

Baynox stops the oxidation of biodiesel and improves the stability in the rancimat test according to DIN EN 14214.  In this way the product inhibits the formation of corrosive acids ( which lead to an increased filter blocking tendency ) due to oxidation of the biodiesel.

It is recommended to prepare a solution of 15-20% of Baynox in biodiesel, to filter the solution prior to use and to add this solution to the final biodiesel.

For any further information please call Michael Thang, 08164850242,

Succes for you all,

Michael Thang

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Rabu, 27 November 2013


Cutting Oil

Adalah cairan yang dibutuhkan dalam proses pendinginan pada pemotongan besi. Sehingga besi potong tidak mudah cepat rusak atau aus.

Cutting oil atau disebut juga Metal Cutting Fluid banyak di gunakan pada proses pemotongan besi. Proses pemotongan dibagi dalam beberapa istilah sb :

1. Grinding
2. Milling
3. Boring
4. Turning

Cutting oil ada 2 tipe :
1. Soluble Cutting Oil
    Penggunaan Cutting Oil dengan cara di campur air dengan perbandingan tergantung kebutuhan. Efek    
    negatif yang ditimbulkan adalah timbulnya bau dari bakteri yang hidup karena pencampuran dengan air.

2. Neat Cutting Oil
    Penggunaan Cutting Oil dengan cara tanpa pencampuran, Cutting oil jenis ini termasuk kategori Cutting
    Oil yang siap pakai.  Biasanya digunakan pada proses pengerjaan metal dengan tingkat kekerasan yang
    amat tinggi.

Informasi selengkapnya dan kebutuhan Cutting Oil  jangan sungkan hubungi kami.

Salam Sukses
Michael Thang

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Minggu, 10 November 2013


Bentonite terbentuk dari abu vulkanik, Unsur (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2Si4O10(OH)2·(H2O). Sifat materialnya tidak menyerap air. Banyak digunakan sebagai bahan kosmetikkeramiksemenadhesivescat dan lain sebagainya. Selain di Indonesia banyak terdapat diAmerika UtaraAustraliaAfrika dan banyak negara lainya. Bentonite dipergunakan juga untuk penahan longsor tanah pada saat melakukan pengeboran pada pekerjaan borepile, masukan bentonite pada lubang yang di bor kemudian tunggu berapa saat dan lakukan kembali supaya bentonitenya bisa mempekeras permukaan dinding tanah yang di bor.

    Bentonit adalah suatu istilah nama dalam dunia perdagangan yang sejenis lempung plastis yang mempunyai kandungan mineral monmorilonit lebih dari 85% dengan rumus kimianya Al2O3.4SiO2 x H2O. Nama ini diusulkan pertama kali oleh Knight (1898) untuk nama sejenis lempung koloid yang ditemukan pada formasi Benton “Rock Creek” Wyoming Amerika Serikat.

    Penamaan istilah bentonit diusulkan sebagai pengganti dari istilah nama lain sebelumnya yaitu:  “Soapy Clay” atau “Taylorit” yang dipopulerkan oleh Taylorite pada tahun 1888. Sedangkan nama monmorilonit itu sendiri berasal dari Perancis pada tahun 1847 untuk penamaan sejenis lempung  yang terdapat di Monmorilon Prancis yang dipublikasikan pada tahun 1853 – 1856. Grim pada tahun (1968) mengelompokkan monmorilonit ini kedalam Smektit Group sub kelompok smektit di-oktahedral (heptaphyllitic) bersama dengan beidelit dan nontronit. Sedangkan sub kelompok lainnya adalah smektit tri-oktahedral (cetaphyllitic) yang terdiri dari mineral hektorit dan saponit.Secara megaskopis bentonit dapat diamati secara langsung dengan ciri khas yaitu : mempunyai kilap lilin, lunak, berwarna abu-abu kecoklatan sampai kehijauan.

Bentonit dapat dibagi menjadi 2 golongan berdasarkan kandungan alu-munium silikat hydrous, yaitu activated clay dan fuller's EarthActivated clayadalah lempung yang kurang memiliki daya pemucat, tetapi daya pemucatnya dapat ditingkatkan melalui pengolahan tertentu. Sementara itu, fuller's earthdigunakan di dalam fulling atau pembersih bahan wool dari lemak.

     Sedangkan berdasarkan tipenya, bentonit dibagi menjadi dua, yaitu :
a.                  Tipe Wyoming ( Na-bentonit-Swelling bentonit )
Na bentonite memiliki daya mengembang hingga delapan kali apabila dicelupkan ke dalam air, dan tetap terdispersi beberapa waktu didalam air. Dalam keadaan kering berwarna putih atau cream, pada keadaan basah dan terkena sinar matahari akan berwarna mengkilap. Perbandingan soda dan kapur tinggi, suspensi koloidal mempunyai pH: 8,5-9,8, tidak dapat diaktifkan, posisi pertukaran diduduki oleh ion-ion sodium ( Na+ ).

b.                  Mg, ( Ca-bentonite – non swelling bentonite )
Tipe bentonite ini kurang mengembang apabila dicelupkan ke dalam air, dan tetap terdispersi di dalam air, tetapi secara alami atau setelah diaktifkan mempunyai sifat menghisap yang baik. Perbandingan kandungan Na dan Ca rendah, suspensi koloidal memiliki pH: 4-7. Posisi pertukaran ion lebih banyak diduduki oleh ion-ion kalsium dan magnesium. Dalam keadaan kering bersifat rapid slaking, berwarna abu-abu, biru, kuning, merah dan coklat. Penggunaan bentonite dalam pemurnian minyak goreng perlu aktivasi terlebih dahulu.

Endapan bentonit Indonesia tersebar di P. Jawa, P. Sumatera, sebagian P. Kalimantan dan P. Sulawesi, dengan cadangan diperkirakan lebih dari 380 juta ton, serta pada umumnya terdiri dari jenis kalsium (Ca-bentonit) . Beberapa lokasi yang sudah dan sedang dieksploitasi, yaitu di Tasikmalaya, Leuwiliang, Nanggulan, dan lain-lain. Indikasi endapan Na-bentonit terdapat di Pangkalan Brandan; Sorolangun-Bangko; Boyolali.

Genesa bentonite secara umum dapat dibagi menjadi 4 (empat) macam  yaitu :
a.       Terjadi karena pengaruh pelapukan.
Pelapukan sebagai faktor utama yang menyebabkan terbentuknya jenis mineral lempung. Dalam proses ini adalah komposisi mineral batuan, komposisi kimia dari air dan daya alir air tersebut dalam batuan. Secara umum faktor yang berpengaruh adalah iklim, macam batuan, relief dan tumbuh-tumbuhan yang berada di atas batuan tersebut.

b.      Terjadi karena pengaruh hydrotermal.
Proses hydrothermal mempengaruhi alterasi yang sangat lemah sehingga mineral-mineral yang kaya akan magnesium seperti hornblende dan biotit cenderung membentuk chlorit. Pada alterasi lemah kehadiran unsur-unsur logam alkali dan alkali tanah, kecuali kalium, mineral-mineral mika, ferramagnesia dan feldspar plagioklas umumnya akan membentuk montmorilonit terutama disebabkan adanya magnesium.  Kehadiran kalium baik yang berasal dari feldspar ataupun mika primer yang terbentuk karena alterasi hydrothermal membentuk zona-zona lingkaran dengan susunan serisit, kaolinit, montmorilonit dan chlorit.

c.       Terjadi karena akibat devitrivikasi dari tufa gelas yang diendapkan didalam air (lakustrin sampai neritic).

Proses tranformasi (ubahan) dari abu vulkanis yang mempunyai komposisi gelas akan menjadi mineral lempung (devitrivikasi) yang lebih sempurna terutama pada daerah danau, lautan dan cekungan sedimentasi. Tranformasi dari gunung berapi yang sempurna akan terjadi apabila debu gunung api diendapkan dalam cekungan seperti danau dan laut. Bentonit yang terjadi akibat proses tranformasi umumnya bercampur dengan sedimen laut lainnya yang berasal dari daratan seperti batu pasir dan lanau.

d.      Terjadi karena proses pengendapan kimia dalam suasana basa ( alkali ) dan sangat silikan.

Proses pengendapan bentonit secara kimiawi dapat berbentuk tidak saja dari tufa tetapi dapat berupa endapan sedimen dalam suasana basa (alkali) yang sangat silikan (authigenic neoformation) dan terbentuk pada cekungan sedimen yang bersifat basa dimana unsur pembentukannya antara lain karbonat, silika pipih, phospat laut dan unsur lainnya yang bersenyawa dengan unsur alluminium dan magnesium.

Berdasarkan kenampakan di lapangan terutama pengamatan secara megaskopis terhadap beberapa singkapan bentonit yang muncul pada beberapa daerah diketahui bahwa endapan bentonit yang terbentuk pada daerah Wonosari dan sekitarnya, terjadi karena adanya proses pelapukan secara dominan yang dicirikan dengan adanya perubahan warna pada beberapa daerah yang masih termasuk di dalam proses pembentukannya dimana adanya cekungan dan daerah dataran sedang.

Bentonit dapat digunakan untuk memperkecil nilai resistansi pembumian (grounding sistem). Bentonit  yang biasa digunakan untuk sistem pembumian adalah bentonit dengan Tipe Na dengan pH 10. Hal ini dikarenakan bentonit dengan pH > 7 memiliki sifat basa dimana basa tidak akan menyebabkan korosi dan akan menjaga kandungan phosphor pada tanah sehingga tanah akan tetap subur.
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