Sabtu, 09 Mei 2015

METHYL SOYATE as a solvents


Methyl soyate, a biobased solvent
made from soybean oil, is an excellent replacment for
petrochemical solvents. It offers numerous advantages
over traditional solvents.

Safety advantages
• High flash point (greater than 360 degrees F)
• Low VOC levels (<50 g/L) • Low toxicity • Not listed as a Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP) Environmental advantages
• Non-ozone-depleting chemical (ODC)
• Non-SARA reportable
• Readily biodegradable
• Potential for reduced waste-disposal costs

Performance advantages
• Can be used to formulate many types of products
• Provides effective solvency with a kauri-butanol (KB)
value of 58
• Compatible with other organic solvents

Methyl soyate has a high solvency with a Kauri-butanol (KB) value of 58 and has low toxicity when compared to other common substances. In comparison to most commercial solvents, methyl soyate is safer to handle and store due to its high flashpoint of approximately 360 degrees Fahrenheit and high boiling point of well over 400 degrees Fahrenheit. In addition, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) does not list methyl soyate as an ozone-depleting chemical (ODC), hazardous air pollutant or volatile organic compound. Methyl soyate�s slow evaporation time can be seen as a disadvantage, but in certain applications methyl soyate outperforms other traditional solvents when longer settle times are needed.

Beyond being an ingredient in cleaners and strippers to replace chlorinated or petroleum products, methyl soyate could find increased use as a carrier solvent. Solvents used as carriers and diluents in a number of alkyd coatings and adhesives include methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEK), toluene and xylene for coatings and methylene chloride (MeCL) and MEK for adhesives.
Methyl soyate is not limited to replacement of regulated industrial cleaning solvents. Due to its eco-friendly nature, methyl soyate can be used to clean up and recover spilled petroleum products from shorelines and streams. In fact, the EPA has listed a methyl soyate biosolvent on the National Contingency Plan product schedule for oil spills. It is also licensed by the state of California as a shoreline cleaner.

Formulated consumer products ranging from hand cleaners to auto-care to personal care products that utilize methyl soyate are already being produced and marketed. Additionally, expanding utilization of methyl-soyate-based co-solvents with ethyl lactate in products such as Vertec Biosolvent�s Vertec Gold solvent, and methyl-soyate-based co-solvents with d-limonene (citrus extract) in products such as CITRUSoy by Bi-O-Kleen Industries, Inc. also show promise. Vertec Gold is used in specialty coatings, inks and cleaners and offers increased versatility and high performance. CITRUSoy solvent, cleaner and degreaser are suitable for removing gum, wax, tar, asphalt, graffiti and more. Other new emerging applications for soy-based-solvent products and processes include bioremediation, paper pulp cleaning and highway paving materials that replace asphalt.

Methyl soyate is proving to be a great alternative to chemical-laden cleaners and solvents. Development and commercialization of biobased products are rapidly expanding because of increased government regulations and market demands for safe, healthy and environmentally-friendly alternatives to terpene or petrochemical based solvents and cleaner/degreasers containing butyls. Opportunities to increase the usage of methyl soyate continue to grow

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Minggu, 04 Januari 2015

Sodium methylate as Catalyst for Biodiesel

Sodium methoxide is a chemical compound with the formula CH3ONa. This colourless solid, which is formed by the deprotonation of methanol, is a widely used reagent in industry and the laboratory. It is also a dangerously caustic base.

Preparation and structure
Sodium methoxide is prepared by carefully treating methanol with sodium:

2 Na + 2 CH3OH → 2 CH3ONa + H2

The reaction is so exothermic that ignition is possible. The resulting solution, which is colorless, is often used as a source of sodium methoxide, but the pure material can be isolated by evaporation followed by heating to remove residual methanol. The solid hydrolyzes in water to give sodium hydroxide, and commercial samples can be contaminated with the hydroxide. The solid and especially solutions absorb carbon dioxide from the air, thus diminishing the effectiveness of the base.

In the solid form, sodium methoxide is polymeric, with a sheet-like arrays of Na+ centers, each bonded to four oxygen centers.

The structure, and hence its basicity, of sodium methoxide in solution depends on the solvent. It is significantly stronger base in DMSO where it is more fully ionized and free of hydrogen bonding.

Organic synthesis
Sodium methoxide is a routine base in organic chemistry, applicable to the synthesis of numerous compounds, ranging from pharmaceuticals to agrichemicals. As a base, it is employed in dehydrohalogenations and various condensations. It is also a nucleophile for the production of methyl ethers.

Industrial applications
Sodium methoxide is used as an initiator of anionic addition polymerization with ethylene oxide, forming a polyether with high molecular weight. Biodiesel is prepared from vegetable oils and animal fats, that is, fatty acid triglycerides, by transesterification with methanol to give fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). This transformation is catalyzed by sodium methoxide.

Sodium methoxide is highly caustic, and the hydrolysis gives methanol, which is toxic and volatile.

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Senin, 22 Desember 2014


Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) acid having the chemical formula H3PO4. Orthophosphoric acid molecules can combine with themselves to form a variety of compounds which are also referred to as phosphoric acids, but in a more general way. Orthophosphoric acid refers to phosphoric acid, which is the IUPAC name for this compound. The prefix ortho is used to distinguish the acid from related phosphoric acids, called polyphosphoric acids. Orthophosphoric acid is a non-toxic acid, which, when pure, is a solid at room temperature and pressure.

The conjugate base of phosphoric acid is the dihydrogen phosphate ion, H2PO−4, which in turn has a conjugate base of hydrogen phosphate, HPO2−4, which has a conjugate base of phosphate, PO3−4.

In addition to being a chemical reagent, phosphoric acid has a wide variety of uses, including as a rust inhibitor, food additive, dental and orthop(a)edic etchant, electrolyte, flux, dispersing agent, industrial etchant, fertilizer feedstock, and component of home cleaning products.

The most common source of phosphoric acid is an 85% aqueous solution; such solutions are colourless, odourless, and non-volatile. The 85% solution is a rather viscous, syrupy liquid, but still pourable. Because it is a concentrated acid, an 85% solution can be corrosive, although nontoxic when diluted. Because of the high percentage of phosphoric acid in this reagent, at least some of the orthophosphoric acid is condensed into polyphosphoric acids. For the sake of labeling and simplicity, the 85% represents H3PO4 as if it were all orthophosphoric acid. Dilute aqueous solutions of phosphoric acid exist in the ortho- form.

Phosphoric acid is used:

> As an external standard for phosphorus-31 Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).
> As a buffer agent in biology and chemistry; For example, a buffer for high-performance liquid chromatography.
> As a chemical oxidizing agent for activated carbon production, as used in the Wentworth Process.[12]
> As the electrolyte in phosphoric acid fuel cells. With distilled water (2–3 drops per gallon) as an electrolyte in oxyhydrogen
> As a catalyst in the hydration of alkenes to produce alcohols, predominantly ethanol.
> As an electrolyte in copper electropolishing for burr removal and circuit board planarization.
> As a flux by hobbyists (such as model railroaders) as an aid to soldering.
In compound semiconductor processing, phosphoric acid is a common wet etching agent: for example, in combination with hydrogen
peroxide and water it is used to etch InGaAs selective to InP.[13]
Heated in microfabrication to etch silicon nitride (Si3N4). It is highly selective in etching Si3N4 instead of SiO2, silicon
> As a cleaner by construction trades to remove mineral deposits, cementitious smears, and hard water stains.
> As a chelant in some household cleaners aimed at similar cleaning tasks.
In hydroponics pH solutions to lower the pH of nutrient solutions. While other types of acids can be used, phosphorus is a nutrient
used by plants, especially during flowering, making phosphoric acid particularly desirable.
> As a pH adjuster in cosmetics and skin-care products.[15]
> As a dispersing agent in detergents and leather treatment.
> As an additive to stabilize acidic aqueous solutions within a wanted and specified pH range.

Source :

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Senin, 08 September 2014

CPE 135 A

Product performance:
Chlorinated polyethylene based impact modifier. Exhibits fine multiple physical properties with good low-temperature flexibility and better tearing strength. Possesses dissolved parameter nearly same as PVC and good affinity with PVC. Under the condition of right processing, forms a network composition inside of the hard PVC finish products and gives them good normal, low-temperature flexibility and impact strength.

Applications / Recommended for:
PVC (Polyvinylchloride) >> PVC compound (rigid or unplasticized compound)
PVC (Polyvinylchloride) >> PVC Compound (flexible or plasticized)

Chlorine content 34 - 36 %
Thermal Decomposition temperature 165 °C
Bulk Density 0.5 g/ml
Volatile Content 0.4 %
Particle Size (36 mesh passing percentage) 99 %
Impurity Particle 10 PC/50g
Shore Hardness 65 A
Tensile Strength 6.0 MPa

For any further info please feel free to contact me.

Michael Thang
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Jumat, 05 September 2014


Menthol is an organic compound made synthetically or obtained from cornmint, peppermint or other mint oils. It is a waxy, crystalline substance, clear or white in color, which is solid at room temperature and melts slightly above. The main form of menthol occurring in nature is (−)-menthol, which is assigned the (1R,2S,5R) configuration. Menthol has local anesthetic and counterirritant qualities, and it is widely used to relieve minor throat irritation. Menthol also acts as a weak kappa opioid receptor agonist.

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Selasa, 15 April 2014


Diacetone alcohol is a chemical compound with the formula CH3C(O)CH2C(OH)(CH3)2. This liquid is a common synthetic intermediate used for the preparation of other compounds.

It occurs naturally in Sleepy grass (Achnatherum robustum).


First identified by Heintz, its preparation entails the Ba(OH)2-catalyzed condensation of two molecules of acetone.

It undergoes dehydration to give the α,β-unsaturated ketone, mesityl oxide:[3] Hydrogenation of mesityl oxide gives the industrial solvent, methyl isobutyl ketone ("MIBK").


It is used in cellulose ester lacquers, particularly of the brushing type, where it produces brilliant gloss and hard film and where its lack of odor is desirable. It is used in lacquer thinners, dopes, wood stains, wood preservatives and printing pastes; in coating compositions for paper and textiles; permanent markers;[4] in making artificial silk and leather; in imitation gold leaf; in celluloid cements; as a preservative for animal tissue; in metal cleaning compounds; in the manufacture of photographic film; and in hydraulic brake fluids, where it is usually mixed with an equal volume of castor oil.

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Kamis, 13 Februari 2014

Lubrication Basics

One of the most important things an operator can do for his machinery is to make sure it is properly lubricated. So what is a lubricant and how does it affect operations when used properly? This paper will answer these questions and more by covering the fundamentals of lubrication. We will discuss how a lubricant works to remove friction, the physical and chemical properties of the lubricant, and the many functions of a lubricant.

Many people believe that a lubricant is simply used to make things “slippery.” While it is the primary function, there are more advantages to using the right lubricant. In addition to friction reduction, it also reduces the amount of wear that occurs during operation, reduces operating temperatures, minimizes corrosion of metal surfaces, and assists in keeping contaminants out of the system. Lubricants have many properties that can be mixed and matched to meet your operating needs. For example, there are different chemicals that can be added to allow a machine to efficiently run at extreme temperatures. We can also make a lubricant more effective in protecting machine surfaces under extreme pressures. By looking at the demands of the machine, you can properly identify the type of lubricant best suited for its proper function.

What Is Lubrication?

To understand what lubrication is, you first need to understand why we use it. Friction is the force that resists relative motion between two bodies in contact. If friction didn’t exist, nothing would ever stop moving. We need friction to function, but there are instances where you want to be able to reduce the amount of friction present. When you rub your hands together, you create heat because of the friction between the sliding surfaces of your hands. Now imagine rubbing your hands together 3600 times a minute – your hands would be on fire! Similar heat is generated by friction in your machinery. If the lubricant in your equipment has not been appropriately selected with standard operating temperatures, load, speed, etc., in mind, catastrophic failure may result.

You could wipe your bearings or if you stop your motor, for example, and the machine is too hot, you could seize the bearings. Either way, both are costly when you consider time lost, manpower used, and new equipment purchased. In order to avoid failures of this nature, we lubricate our machinery to minimize the resistance to movement, and as a result, minimize the amount of heat produced. The heat that is produced by the equipment is transferred to the oil so that it may be removed by a lube oil cooler. There are a lot of considerations that must be applied when selecting the type of lubricant we need to use: viscosity, additives needed, properties, etc.

Reducing friction and reducing heat are only a couple of the reasons we use lubricants. If you look under a microscope at two surfaces moving across each other, you would see something that looks like two mountain ranges rubbing against one another. As this happens, pieces of the weaker material break off and create smaller abrasive particles, resulting in more broken off pieces, which go on to create more abrasion. It’s a vicious cycle, and the way we prevent this from occurring is by creating a lubrication film. Two of the preferred and most common types of fluid related lubricant films are hydrodynamic and elastohydrodynamic. Hydrodynamic films are present between sliding contacts. The most common example would be a journal bearing.

When a shaft is still, it sits on the bottom of the bearing, but when it starts to move, it tries to “climb” up the side of the bearing. Microscopic layer upon layer of the lubricant create friction with each other and form an oil wedge between the shaft and the bearing, protecting both surfaces. Elastohydrodynamic films are present in rolling contacts, such as ball bearings or roller bearings. In this situation, the softer material makes up the rolling element which actually deforms for a split second to enlarge the contact area between mating surfaces. Here, the oil film thickness is one micron or less, which brings me to another reason for lubrication. We need to minimize foreign particles that may cause damage to this area.

Now in situations where the film layer is only one micron thick, you could imagine that any contaminants that are present can create major damage, so we try to eliminate as many as possible. While we can control the amount of contamination that enters a system by using seals, filters, and other quality controls, it’s impossible to completely eliminate machinery wear, even with the best lubricant films. So what do we do with the wear particles we can’t avoid? Certain additives in lubrication will be attracted to these contaminants, suspend them in the lubricant, and transfer them to filters or other separators installed in the system where they will be removed.

Finally, most places aren’t completely unaffected by humidity. So what does it mean when water and air come into contact with metal? Corrosion, and as we all know, that’s not good for machine operation. So how does a lubricant help with this problem? There are different additives, similar in operation to the additives used for contamination control, which prevent metal surfaces from coming in contact with water. This prevents the production of rust, therefore preventing damage to the metal machine surfaces.

So a lubricant is a substance that reduces friction, heat, and wear when introduced as a film between solid surfaces. Using the correct lubricant helps maximize the life of your bearings and machinery, therefore saving money, time, and manpower, thus making operations more efficient and more reliable.

What Makes Up the Lubricants We Use?

All lubricants start with a base oil. There are three types: mineral, synthetic, and vegetable. In industrial applications, we mostly deal with mineral and synthetic, so I would like to focus on these. Mineral oil comes from crude oil and the quality depends on the refining process. There is a grading scale for oil and different applications require different oil quality. Mineral oil is mainly made up of four different types of molecules – paraffin, branched paraffin, naphthene, and aromatic. Paraffinic oils have a long, straight chained structure, while branched paraffinic oils are the same with a branch off the side. These are used mainly in engine oils, industrial lubricants, and processing oils. Naphthenic oils have a saturated ring structure and are most common in moderate temperature applications. Aromatic oils have a non-saturated ring structure and are used for manufacturing seal compounds and adhesives. Synthetic oils are man-made fluids that have identical straight chained structures, much like the branched paraffinic oils. One of the benefits of a synthetic is that the molecular size and weight are constant while mineral oils vary greatly; therefore the properties are very predictable.

So why don’t we use synthetic oils all the time if we know exactly what it’s going to do? While there are many advantages to using a synthetic, there are almost as many reasons to not use it. The best quality mineral oil is mostly made up of paraffinic oils, like those in synthetic oil. So, in many applications, mineral oil is just as good as synthetic, and in these applications is most likely the preferred base due to synthetic’s high cost, toxicity, solubility, incompatibility, and hazardous disposal. However, in extreme applications where a high flash point, low pour point, fire resistance, thermal stability, high shear strength, or high viscosity index is needed, a synthetic may be just what’s required.

We briefly discussed a couple of the additives that are used with a base oil in order to improve performance, but I’d like to expand on the most common additives now. The most important property to look at when choosing a lubricant is its viscosity. This is the oil’s resistance to shear and flow. The simplest way to describe viscosity is to relate it to substances that we are familiar with. The higher an oil’s viscosity, the slower it flows. Molasses, for example, has a very high viscosity while baby oil has a very low viscosity. The viscosity required for an application depends on the speed, operating temperature, and type of bearing as well as the type of component, like a gearbox versus a motor. Working hand in hand with viscosity is the viscosity index, which relates change in viscosity due to temperature. The higher the viscosity index, the less viscosity is affected by temperature. This property can be improved with a viscosity index additive. Rust inhibitors protect surfaces against rust by forming a thin water repelling film on the metals surface. Dispersants help protect components against abrasion from wear products by enveloping particles and suspending them in the oil so that they may be easily flushed and removed from the system. Antiwear and extreme pressure (EP) additives react with a component’s surfaces to form a thin protective layer to prevent metal-to-metal contact. This is especially helpful in situations where there is high pressure or a lot of stop and start evolutions. Detergents work to neutralize acids and clean surfaces where deposits may be detrimental. Finally, defoamants weaken the surface tension of bubbles so that they may break easily and minimize foaming.

For any given oil, the ingredients are the base oil and the additives. The only difference for grease is that it also has a thickener. This is most commonly described as “the sponge that holds the lubricant.” Up to thirty percent of grease is made up of the thickener which is either a simple or complex soap. Simple soap is made up of long fibers and has a smooth, buttery texture. Examples of simple soaps are lithium, polyurea, calcium, and silica. Complex soap is made up of short and long fibers and has a more fibrous texture. Some examples are aluminum, sodium, and barium.

There are benefits of using a grease as opposed to oil in certain applications. Grease seals out contaminants, is better suited for insoluble solid additives like molybdenum disulfide and graphite, and has better stop-start performance because it doesn’t drain away like oil, for a lower chance of a dry start. However, the thickness of grease limits bearing speed, reduces cooling of components, makes for difficult sampling and analysis, and makes it difficult to determine the proper amount of grease that needs adding. This is something that must be taken into consideration when deciding if oil or grease would be better suited for the application.

With a basic understanding of lubrication, you can see there are quite a few advantages of using the proper lubrication in your machines. Higher efficiency, longer life, better reliability, and less money spent on maintenance are goals that every company strives to achieve. Learning more about proper lubrication programs and applying everything you learn will make these goals easily within reach.

Source: Noria Corp.

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